Cell Line Development

A New Kinetic Structured Model for Cell Cultivation in a Chemostat

    Mathematically modeling the kinetics of batch and continuous cultivation allows you to not only calculate and evaluate the effects of process parameters, but also to forecast those parameters and duration of cultivation to develop a cost-effective production process. Mathematical modeling microorganism cultivation was intensively developed in the second half of the last century. Equations 1–6: ()   Monod proposed Equation 1 for batch processes in 1942 (1). In that equation, µ and µmax are the specific and maximum…

Novel Single-Use Sensors for Online Measurement of Glucose

    According to an FDA guidance document, process analytical technology (PAT) tools “are intended to support innovation and efficiency in pharmaceutical development” (1). The agency encourages manufacturers to use a PAT framework for developing and implementing effective innovative approaches in development, manufacturing, and quality assurance. The sensors described here are one possible response to the requirement of systems by analyzing and controlling critical cultivation parameters with real-time process measurements.   Working Principle   Glucose was measured using a #CITSens…

A Decade of Animal Cell Culture

Eukaryotic cells are fragile and finicky, requiring very specific culture conditions and nutrients to survive, grow, and be productive in an ex vivo environment. Even so, they have become vital to the biopharmaceutical industry’s ability to make complex biological products — overtaking yeast as a production system around 1990 and surpassing bacteria in the number of associated product approvals five years later (1). Since then, they have become even more useful, expanding their reach into the vaccine world. Mammalian cell…

Measuring kLa for Better Bioreactor Performance

Knowledge of kLa (the volumetric mass-transfer coefficient that describes the efficiency with which oxygen can be delivered to a bioreactor for a given set of operating conditions) is not new. Here I provide information for those who are unfamiliar with the measurement method and/or issues that must be considered when making these measurements. Advances in this area now make it advisable to run kLa measurements routinely in many bioprocesses. The Importance of Measuring kLa Before examining the process theory and…

Development of a Plant-Made Pharmaceutical Production Platform

Since the late 1980s, studies have shown that plants can manufacture functional transgenic pharmaceutical compounds. Advantages attributed to plant-made pharmaceutical (PMP) approaches are compelling, and PMP production continues to attract interest from investors and the biopharmaceutical industry (Table 1). Proposed PMP benefits include proven scalability, high production capacity, limited exposure to human or animal pathogens, lower capital expenditures (CapEx), and decreased operating costs. Those putative advantages have proven to be significant business forces driving continued investor support for PMP ventures.…

Noninvasive Optical Sensor Technology in Shake Flasks

In process development, appropriate scaling is important to achieve acceptable product quality without compromising titer (1). Scale-down approaches involve matching the oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa) value, impeller tip speed, power per unit volume, or mixing time to those of a bioreactor (2). Bench-top bioreactors are typically used in bioprocess engineering as scale-down models of commercial units in fermentation and cell culture because of their similarity in geometry (H/D ratio) and mechanical properties (agitation type and sparging). By contrast, shaking culture…

Limited Analytical Technologies Are Inhibiting Industry Growth

    Progress in the development of bioprocessing-related assays and analytical instrumentation has not kept up with industry demands. The industry wants analytical technologies (especially for single use) to help improve productivity, optimize and monitor processes, provide real-time product quality control, and characterize biosimilars. These trends are reflected in our recent survey data. Over 30% of biopharmaceutical manufacturers and contract manufacturing organizations (CMOs) have expressed demands for improved assays and analytical equipment (1). BioPlan Associates’ eighth annual survey of biopharmaceutical…

Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance for Bioprocess Development, Monitoring, and Validation

    Academic laboratories have embraced localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) as the “new wave” of label-free technology (1). This technique is based on the ability of colloidal metal nanoparticles or nanostructured metallic films to absorb light in a narrow wavelength range. Metal nanostructures “sense” changes occurring at their surfaces by shifting the frequency of the light they absorb or reflect. As a consequence, a basic LSPR system requires only optical fibers, a source of white light, and a detector…

An Update on Cell-Based Technologies

    It’s always exciting to find out where the next meeting of the European Society for Animal Cell Technology will be. This venerable conference happens somewhere in Europe every other year. Recent sites have included Dublin, Ireland (2009); Dresden, Germany (2007); Harrogate, England (2005); Granada, Spain (2003); and Tylösand, Sweden (2001). This May, the gathering of animal cell culture scientists and engineers will convene in the palatial setting of the historic Hofburg Congress Center, formerly the Hapsburgs’ imperial residence…

Implementation of Single-Use Technology in Biopharmaceutical Manufacturing

    The increasing application of single-use components and systems in bioprocessing represents one of the most significant changes in biopharmaceutical manufacturing in recent times. Driven by various factors such as improved efficiency, flexibility, and economics, this trend also presents specific challenges to end users. In one industry review by Langer, extractables and leachable compounds from disposable components were considered by end users to be a major area of potential concern regarding safety, efficacy, and stability of the pharmaceutical product…