Pre-Formulation

A Practical Method for Resolving the Nucleation Problem in Lyophilization

Given the prevalence of lyophilization and the growing pipeline of sensitive biological drugs requiring stabilization, pharmaceutical development and manufacturing personnel need complete, reproducible control over the operation, scale-up, and transfer of their lyophilization processes. To address the nucleation problem, Praxair has developed a step-change technology that adds consistent control to the freezing step of lyophilization. This low-capital, plug-and-play option can be readily implemented on most existing freeze-dryers with minor equipment additions and controls integration. Adoption of the technology requires no…

Applying Intelligent Flow Microscopy to Biotechnology

Ongoing requirements for additional insight and CGMP-compliant measurement have led to interest in new technologies that can be applied to the analysis of many different types of particle-containing fluids. Micro-Flow imaging (MFI) is a robust, versatile, and intelligent vision technology that is increasingly used for evaluating populations of microparticles encountered during bioformulation development (1). It is also being accepted in fill–finish processes and many other biotechnology applications. Features of MFI technology that have contributed to its rising popularity include the…

Novel Excipients Prevent Aggregation in Manufacturing and Formulation of Protein and Peptide Therapeutics

Protein and peptide therapeutics may undergo numerous physical and chemical changes during manufacturing, shipping, storage, and administration that can adversely alter drug potency and safety. Earlier concerns focused upon denaturation (unfolding), oxidation, and deamidation of certain key aminoacyl residues. Recently, aggregation has emerged as a key issue underlying multiple deleterious effects for peptide- or protein-based therapeutics, including loss of efficacy, altered pharmacokinetics, reduced stability and product shelf life, and induction of unwanted immunogenicity. As a result, the US FDA and…

Maximizing Data Collection and Analysis During Preformulation of Biotherapeutic Proteins

Preformulation research, a critical component in the development of biotherapeutics, explores the effects of variables such as pH, ionic strength, and excipients on the solution behavior of a protein. This activity can greatly assist in guiding downstream formulation development, and it provides valuable information concerning protein stability, solubility, and structure. Successful preformulation research leads to identification of potential protein degradation pathways and development of robust formulations with acceptable product shelf-lives. PRODUCT FOCUS: PROTEINSPROCESS FOCUS: DOWNSTREAM PROCESSING, FORMULATIONWHO SHOULD READ: FORMULATIONS,…

Probing Thermal Stability of MAbs By Intrinsic Tryptophan Fluorescence

In the arsenal of biophysical techniques available for rapidly monitoring the stability of protein formulations, spectroscopic techniques have some convincing advantages over others (1, 2). The main advantages to using methods such as circular dichroism (CD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and fluorescence spectroscopy are their extremely high sensitivity (favorable signal-to-noise ratios), freedom from sample interactions with column resins or extrinsic probes (noninvasive techniques), and coverage of an extremely broad protein concentration range — from pM to mM (3, 4). To reduce…