Applying Disruptive Technologies in Mammalian Cell Line Development

Recombinant monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) maintain their ranking as the best-selling class of biologic drugs. The introduction of high titer bioprocessing for the majority of these MAb products has focused efforts towards maintaining desired quality attributes and reducing time to market. Furthermore, patents covering several blockbuster MAbs and the expression technologies, which facilitate their high-level expression, are due to expire over the next decade. A wave of second generation or “follow-on” biopharmaceuticals/bioprocesses will therefore be vying for market share and regulatory approval. Consequently, should biopharmaceutical manufacturing companies rely on traditional “platform” methods of cell line development (CLD), which are well known but yield extensive variation and unpredictable stability of expression, or invest in emerging technologies, which offer the potential of greater reproducibility and speed? Enabling technologies in this area include host cell engineering, engineered expression vectors, and rapid transient gene expression. Given the well-known mantra “the product is the process”, implementation of these disruptive technologies will require a thorough understanding of how changes at the CLD-phase affect key production process characteristics such as high cell-specific productivity, correct product processing and rapid cell proliferation. Traditionally, CLD optimisation is carried out using a lengthy trial-and-error approach where cells are treated as a “black box” and characteristics are iteratively improved. Further advancement in CLD is therefore likely to benefit from the tools of systems biology. These tools will ensure that future CLD manipulations will be informed by an understanding of the genetic, regulatory, and metabolic networks that determine key process characteristics during a production process.

Validation of the New Single-Use Freeze-Pak™STS Storage and Transport Solution Containers

Production of biotherapeutics whether for clinical development or large scale manufacturing campaigns intended to be converted to final drug product often involves frozen storage. Frozen storage provides manufacturing process flexibility while enabling long-term product stability. Products are frozen and stored using a variety of technologies including stainless steel vessels, bottles, carboys and single-use bags. Use of bags has become popular due to their low investment cost and process flexibility attributes. Single-use bags intended for freezing and storage are often made with films using EVA and/or LDPE with product routinely blast frozen and stored to -30°C in a cold storage warehouse. During freezing and transport, the bags will typically experience temperatures well below -30°C ranging from -50 to -80°C. Under these conditions, the bags have to endure a wide variety of stresses (film brittleness, volume expansion, etc.) impacting integrity. With applications (like working cell banks for example) requiring lower temperatures for maintenance of long-term product stability, frozen storage films and containers designed for these conditions are needed. The new single-use Freeze-Pak™STS (FP-STS) frozen storage and transport solution containers from Charter Medical, Ltd. are manufactured using a unique polyolefin monolayer film designed for freezing applications The FP-STS bags (including tubing and connectors) have been validated for storage to -80°C, while the Freeze-Pak™ film remains flexible to temperatures as low as -196°C. The new Freeze-Pak™ STS bags deliver the flexibility and durability required for frozen storage and transport.

E. coli Cultivation in a 12L and 120L CELL-tainer™ Single-Use Bioreactor

Single-use bioreactors are usually applied in the biopharmaceutical industry for mammalian cell culture processes. For microbial processes, concepts like the CELL-tainer® technology allow comparable gas-liquid mass transfer rates like in stirred tank reactors. In the CELL-tainer, the rocking motion of the bag is generated with a combination of a vertical and horizontal movement. Due to a 2-D rocking motion, the turbulence in the liquid is intensified. Thus, volumetric oxygen transfer rates (kLa) of over 400 h-1 could be achieved. Recently, the successful scale-up of an Escherichia coli nutrient-limited fed-batch cultivation from the 15 L to the 150 L scale in the CELL-tainer single-use bioreactor has been conducted. A final biomass concentration of 45 gL-1 within 24 hrs was obtained in cultivations proving the general suitability of this reactor concept for the application of bacterial processes. The combination of intelligent software sensor control strategies and currently improving (single-use) sensors will lead to a reduction of current drawbacks and improve control of bacterial fed-batch processes. The availability of single-use bioreactors for microbial cultivations widens their potential, not only in biopharmaceutical processing, but also as a pre-culture bioreactor for large scale processes and as a suitable tool in bioprocess development.

Selecting a Transfection Reagent for Large Scale Protein Production in Suspension 293 Cell Types

Decrease time to produce usable protein by maximizing target protein yields through transient transfection. The TransIT-PRO® Transfection Kit uses animal origin free components designed for high and reproducible nucleic acid delivery into suspension CHO and 293 derived cells. Since it is compatible with varied media formulations, the same media can be used for both transient and stable expression. The TransIT-PRO outperforms linear PEI in protein yield, while providing a cost-effective alternative to FreeStyle™ MAX and 293Fectin™ Transfection Reagents.

Scale-Up of Adherent Vero Cells Grown on Cytodex™ Microcarriers Using ReadyToProcess Equipment

In cell culture-based vaccine production, scale-up of adherent cells is challenging. This study shows a process for scaling up adherent Vero cells from static cell factories to influenza production at 50 L scale using WAVE Bioreactor™ systems and ReadyToProcess singleuse equipment. Vero cells were grown to high cell density on Cytodex microcarriers in 10 L working volume. The cells were detached with trypsin and used to seed a 50 L production culture with the same microcarrier concentration. The cells were allowed to reattach and grow on the new microcarriers in a larger Cellbag™ bioreactor chamber. Cells were subsequently infected with influenza virus. The results show a repeatable scaleup procedure.

Overview of a Scale-Up of a Cell-Based Influenza Virus Production Process

The aim of this white paper is to demonstrate how GE Healthcare Life Sciences single-use products can be applied in the field of vaccine manufacturing. A brief discussion around modern vaccine processes is followed by a case study showing the scale-up of upstream and downstream processes for the production of a cell based live attenuated influenza virus using single-use ReadyToProcess technology. Single-use equipment enables quick changeover between products, minimizes risk for cross-contamination between batches, and reduces the need for cleaning and validation operations.

A Short History of Cell Culture Media and the Use of Insulin

A surprising history of cell culture media and the use of insulin, outlining the basic developments behind growing mammalian cells.

It will take you on a journey from the late 1800 where organ tissues were kept in balanced salt solutions -BSS- and later PBS, until the early 50’s synthetic media, over chick embryo extract and Eagle’s Minimal Essential Medium (MEM) or its modification by Dulbecco (DMEM). Finally describing insulin mimicking growth factors.

Gram Scale Antibody Production Using CHO Cell Transient Gene Expression (TGE) via Flow Electroporation

MaxCyte flow electroporation provides a universal means of fully scalable, highly efficient CHO-based TGE for the rapid production of gram to multi-gram level s of antibodies without the need for specialized reagents, expression vectors, or engineered CHO cell lines. In this technical note, we present data demonstrating the reproducibility, scalability, and antibody production capabilities of MaxCyte electroporation. Secreted antibody titers routinely exceed 400 mg/L and can exceed 1gram/L following optimization, thereby enabling multi-gram antibody production from a single, CHO cell transfection. In addition, we present data showing the use of MaxCyte electroporation for the rapid generation of high-yield stable CHO cell lines to bridge the gap between early and late stage antibody development activities.

Has Your Current LIMS Implementation Been a Nightmare?

Because current traditional LIMS have not delivered on their promise, many organizations are still searching for solutions to optimize their laboratory operations. For those engaged in deploying traditional LIMS, frequent sleep-disturbing issues include poor flexibility and configurability, expensive and time-consuming customization, difficulties extending and upgrading systems, poor usability, lack of modular functionality, poor service/support, problems integrating with existing instrumentation/IT systems and extra time and resources required to meet critical qualification/compliance requirements. Learn how you can avoid the top 5 LIMS nightmares and rest easier with today’s next-generation process and execution-centric LIMS.