Filtration

Save Valuable Facility Time with Single-Use TFF

Biopharmaceutical developers and manufacturers are part of a global, dynamic, and highly competitive market. They face constant pressure to produce high-quality products within relatively short time frames and at reduced costs. Process-intensification strategies and single-use (SU) solutions are popular approaches to maximizing productivity and promoting fast, efficient, and lean processing — the pillars of next-generation facilities. Filtration is an integral part of all bioprocesses and is applied to many up- and downstream steps, including harvest, clarification, and concentration/diafiltration. Tangential-flow filtration…

Hollow-Fiber Nanofiltration for Robust Viral Clearance of Non-MAb Biologics

Monoclonal antibody (MAb) and other therapeutic biologics produced by mammalian cells have the potential to introduce endogenous retroviruses and can be infected with adventitious viruses through raw materials or other parts of the biomanufacturing process (1–3). Based on regulatory guidelines, products derived from mammalian cells must contain less than one virus particle per million doses, which requires purification processes to demonstrate virus removal capabilities of about 12–18 log10 clearance of endogenous retroviruses and 6 log10 clearance for adventitious viruses (4).…

Tangential-Flow Filtration Process Control and Data Acquisition System for Process Development

PendoTECH tangential-flow filtration (TFF) process control systems have been widely adopted in the filtration community. The system’s features enable its implementation in multiple unit operations and biopharmaceutical processing applications, including ultrafiltration–diafiltration (UF–DF) of proteins, viruses, and compounds such as oligonucleotides and antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs). The control system can be used to develop process parameters for UF–DF processes that have different membrane formats (e.g., flat-sheet cassette and hollow fiber). TFF laboratory setups often are manual or semiautomated processes that use pumps,…

Using 3D Imaging To Understand Sterilizing-Grade Filtration of Liposomes

Sterilizing-grade filtration is an essential operation for biomanufacturing. It ensures that drug substances are free from microorganisms at the end of a downstream process. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for high-quality therapies to be manufactured efficiently at scale, with particular focus on the need for multiple vaccines to be developed, produced, and distributed globally (1). Some vaccines have used lipid nanoparticle encapsulation technology, which also has potential for use in gene therapy development in the near future. Lipid…

The Impact of Protein Stability on Virus Filtration

Filtration of protein-based biologics is essential for minimizing viral contamination and ensuring product safety and high quality. The tendency of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and recombinant proteins to aggregate under a number of conditions can complicate selection of a virus filter. An increasing demand for high concentration formulations creates additional challenges. When performing filterability studies and to ensure meaningful virus filter evaluations, downstream process scientists must address factors that can lead to aggregation. This special report on virus filtration by…

Reducing Downstream Scale-Up Needs: Advances Toward Continuous Downstream Processing

The biopharmaceutical industry generally acknowledges that upstream and downstream aspects of drug-substance manufacturing are experiencing a capacity mismatch. Today, many recombinant proteins can be produced at expression titers of 3 g/L, with some yields exceeding 10 g/L. Such titers represent 100-fold increases in production capability compared with values from twenty years ago (1, 2). Increases in cell-culture density and improvements to perfusion-mode bioreactor systems hold promise for increasing yields further still. Such developments, combined with the broad availability of concentrated…

Comparing Single-Use Multicycle Cake Filtration with Depth Filtration: Eliminating the Downstream Bottleneck

Over the past few decades, single-use (SU) technology has increased bioproduction efficiency significantly, especially with the introduction of disposable bioreactors in upstream processing. To keep pace with major developments and increases in upstream capacity, downstream processes also must increase capacity and efficiency. However, cell harvesting and downstream processing continue to present bottlenecks in manufacturing (1). Typical clarification processes are composed of primary and secondary clarification steps, such as centrifugation followed by depth filtration, respectively (1). Two sets of SU depth…

The Effect of Benzonase Endonuclease Addition to Purification of Sabin Poliovirus Type 3

During production of vaccines and viral vectors, the size and quantity of extracellular nucleic acids must be reduced using endonuclease enzymes. Merck/MilliporeSigma’s proprietary Benzonase endonuclease is a genetically engineered nuclease derived from the Gram-negative bacteria Serratia marcescens. It attacks and degrades all forms of DNA and RNA. It is manufactured under good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions and has a drug master file (MDF) in place with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which can be cited in regulatory filings.…

Validation of a Next-Generation Single-Use Turbidity System

Turbidity describes the relative clarity of a liquid as the result of suspended solids. Instruments that measure turbidity typically use a beam of light to detect particles by measuring the difference between the amount of light emitted from the light source and the amount that is received by a detector. Such measurements are affected by the size, shape, and number of particles in a sample of liquid because those solids scatter the incoming light, which provides an apparent absorbance that…

Drug Formulations Are Changing:
New Sterile Filtration Challenges in the Changing Landscape of Drug Formulations

Read about the challenges of sterile filtration of high concentration mAbs, liposomes, and lentiviral vectors, and how to solve them in this Special Report. Development of new, complex drug formulations has given us therapeutics with properties that are markedly different from traditional drug types. High viscosity or low surface tension formulations or large viral vector molecules can mean that sterile filtration processes, which are optimized for traditional drug types, are not as efficient for the new, complex formulations. Premature filter…