Vaccines

Cell-Culture–Based Influenza Vaccine Manufacturing: Evaluation of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for In-Line Determination of Virus Titers

Each year, over 20% of the human population is infected with the influenza virus, resulting in 250,000–500,000 related deaths globally and ~38,000 deaths in the United States alone. Of further concern is the potential for pandemic outbreaks, which pose a severe worldwide threat to public health (1, 2). Vaccination has proven to be a critical tool for controlling the spread of infectious diseases, as evidenced by the eradication of polio, smallpox, and diphtheria in most parts of the world. Influenza…

Accelerated Development, Manufacturing and Monitoring of Viral Vectors

The goals of process intensification are to enhance production while shortening timelines, lessening contamination and environmental risks to products and operators, and reducing operating footprints. Previous publications from Sartorius Stedim Biotech (SSB) have highlighted key elements of such activities. In this report, the authors extend the scope of this discussion to tools and technologies that enable intensification of viral vector manufacturing processes. The first article summarizes presentations from a 2018 seminar for viral vaccine manufacturers. Three guest presentations highlighted the…

Yang Zhi

A Platform Production Process for Manufacturing Viral Vector and Vaccine Therapeutics Using Vero Cells

Yan Zhi, program design technical lead, Fujifilm Diosynth Biotechnologies Fujifilm Diosynth Biotechnologies (FDB) is a world-leading contract development and manufacturing organization (CDMO) with over 25 years of experience using biologicals and more than 310 projects including six licenses. Production sites are located in North Carolina and Texas. In Texas, the flexible biomanufacturing facility can handle production from preclinical to current good manufacturing practices (CGMP) commercial manufacturing. Facilities and capabilities include state-of-the-art process development; mobile cleanroom (MCR) technology with fully segregated…

Accelerating Vaccine Production Using a Nonviral Enabling Technology for Cell Engineering

At the recent World Vaccine Conference, Victor Ayala, PhD, an early stage investigator with Advanced BioScience Laboratories, Inc. (ABL), discussed how to accelerate vaccine production using a nonviral enabling technology for cell engineering. ABL is a contract research/manufacturing organization (CRO/CMO) providing manufacturing and laboratory research services to advance leading vaccines and therapies from clinical development to the commercial market. The company has been conducting R&D research for over 55 years and performing CMO manufacturing for over 25 years. With more…

Filter-Based Clarification of Viral Vaccines and Vectors

Viral vaccines rely on the antigen properties of a virus or virus-like entity to trigger an immune response and induce immune protection against a forthcoming viral infection. Through development of recombinant viral vaccines, developers can reduce risks associated with the presence of live and inactivated viruses. Instead, recombinant vaccines induce immunity against a pathogen by relying on the capacity of one or more antigens delivered by means of viral vectors or the baculovirus/plasmid system (1). Viral vaccines are formulated with…

eBook: Viral Vaccine Production — Cultivation of Vero Cells in Packed-Bed Bioreactors

Vero cells are anchorage-dependent cells that are used widely as a platform for viral vaccine production (1). In stirred-tank bioreactors, they are grown ordinarily on microcarriers. Fibra-Cel disks are an alternative attachment matrix because they provide a three-dimensional environment that protects cells from damaging shear forces. However, such disks have not been tested for the cultivation of Vero cells. We tested whether benchtop single-use and glass bioreactors with a packed bed made of Fibra-Cel disks would be suitable for cultivation…

A Vaccine Case Study: Qualifying Redundant Disconnection Technologies As Container-Closure Systems for Long-Term Storage and Shipping

The expanding complexity of biopharmaceutical manufacturing puts increasing pressure on single-use systems to meet the demands of the modern industry’s global footprint. Individual sites within a given organization often are specialized to a fixed number of “modular” process steps (1). Such product segregation increases plant efficiency and output while making the best of staff competencies. But it also can create an additional need for transportation of intermediate or bulk drug substance (BDS) over long distances. Freezing generally is used to…

Going After a Moving Target: New Production Methods Aid in the Flu Fight

The traditional method of manufacturing vaccines for influenza involves infecting hens’ eggs with the virus, then harvesting and purifying the large amounts of virus that they produce as a result. It’s time-consuming and expensive, requiring large specialized facilities for production. With the advent of genetic engineering and decades of improvement in protein production through cell-line engineering and industrial culture, it was only a matter of time before the vaccine industry saw the real value in modern biomanufacturing instead (1, 2).…

Membrane-Based Clarification of Polysaccharide Vaccines

Polysaccharide vaccines are essential for protection against infectious diseases, which remain an alarming cause of mortality. The first glycoconjugate vaccine for use in humans — a Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate — was licensed in the United States in 1987. This vaccine successfully reduced the incidence of invasive Hib disease in childhood and led to the further development of conjugate vaccines designed to prevent infection by other encapsulated bacteria (1). Polysaccharides are relatively complex carbohydrates made up of many…

Lot Release and Characterization Testing of Live-Virus–Based Vaccines and Gene Therapy Products

The January 2005 CMC Strategy Forum was devoted to a discussion of live virus vaccines and viral vectors used for gene therapy. The purpose of the meeting was to determine whether consensus positions could be reached among the delegates regarding lot release, stability, characterization, and comparability testing. Part 1 of this two-part report on that meeting describes factors influencing the choices of lot-release assays for vaccines and gene-therapy products (1). Part 2 presents potency testing, characterization, and comparability studies, including…