eBooks

eBook: Drug Delivery —
Partnerships Are Key As Medical and Digital Worlds Converge

Drug delivery is advancing into a digital future. Information technology is changing aspects of every operation in the biopharmaceutical industry. Meanwhile, machine learning and cloud computing are not only finding their way into drug development, manufacturing, and distribution, but also into drug-product delivery devices themselves. As a result, many biopharmaceutical companies are seeking medical device expertise through strategic alliances and contract services. New delivery devices can help big companies extend patent protection on established marketed products, for example, and provide…

eBook: Downstream Processing — An Overview of MAb Purification Methods

The downstream harvest, clarification, and purification operations of biologics are essential steps to ensure drug product safety. However, these process steps can be problematic for complex biologics. Compared with processes for traditional small-molecule pharmaceuticals, downstream methods for monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have higher risks of contamination. Thus, different centrifugation, filtration, chromatography technology and viral clearance/inactivation strategies must be applied to remove dead cells, host-cell proteins, viruses, and other contaminants. Several factors must be considered to determine which methods and technologies are…

eBook: Mixed-Mode Chromatography for Purification of Biopharmaceuticals

Mixed-mode chromatography offers several advantages in downstream processing of biotherapeutics. Mixed-mode chromatography resins use ligands that are capable of at least two modes of interaction with solutes such as hydrophobic, ion exchange, and metal affinity. The interactions between stationary and mobile phases that result from those combinations enhance chromatographic selectivity, facilitating separation efficiencies that are not possible using other chromatography media. As this eBook illustrates, the multimodal approach can save developers time and money by enabling robust purification of biopharmaceuticals…

eBook: Raw Material Control Strategy — Leveraging Knowledge of Material Attributes and Data Analytics as Key Elements

Ensuring pharmaceutical quality begins with in-depth understanding of process/platform capabilities, which is informed by knowledge gained through product and process development, subject-matter expertise, and lessons learned from experience. And all outside factors that can affect manufacturing outcomes must be taken into consideration. Extra vigilance is necessary for understanding potential sources of variation and maintaining robust control strategies to ensure process consistency — and ultimately product quality for patients. Biomanufacturing unit operations require multiple raw materials that must be documented as…

eBook: Antibody–Drug Conjugates — Refining Product Designs for Improved Outcomes

Antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs) seek to partner the target specificity of antibodies with the cell-killing punch of chemotherapy drugs. Researchers identify antibodies that bind to proteins found predominantly or exclusively on the surfaces of cancer cells. The cells can absorb the ADC into their interiors, where the chemical environment or enzymes detach the drug from the antibody, freeing it to wreak havoc. Although nine ADCs have received US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or European Medicines Agency (EMA) approval (and many…

eBook: Viral Vector Purification — A Discussion of Current Challenges and Methods

Adenoassociated viral (AAV) vectors have become synonymous with gene therapy delivery. However, because they are produced in such small quantities and because their upstream processes carry comparatively large amounts of host-cell DNA and other impurities, AAV purification can be challenging. Several researchers have applied different chromatographic strategies, but no universal method has been adopted in the biopharmaceutical industry. This eBook features a discussion among several industry experts that explores challenges specific to AAV purification, shedding light on whether current strategies…

eBook: Trends in Facility Design —
In-House Manufacturing Considerations for Cell and Gene Therapy Production

Manufacturing and facility challenges facing cell and gene therapy companies are similar to but more complex than those encountered by companies that produce traditional biopharmaceuticals such as vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, and other therapeutic proteins. A single product can have multiple components, manufacturing of which may or may not be outsourced. Project timelines are short, production technologies are new and evolving, and clinical demands change rapidly. Increasing competition for contract manufacturing services requires reserving capacity far in advance, which in most…

challenges with exosome therapy

eBook: Challenges in Industrial Process Development of Exosome-Based Therapies: Characterizing and Managing Diversity

The traditional classification of extracellular vesicles (EVs) includes three types: exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic vesicles. Each type arises from a distinct origin and exhibits distinct characteristics. The problem is that their size ranges overlap and that the major surface proteins presented by exosomes also are present on the surfaces of microvesicles and apoptotic bodies. This makes it a challenge for process developers to identify the vesicle fraction that best serves a particular exosome therapy. Anion-exchange chromatography (AEC) can fractionate EVs…

eBook: Expression Systems — Innovative Techniques for Conventional Cell Lines

Although Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and Escherichia coli cells have become the biopharmaceutical industry’s preferred platforms for producing recombinant proteins, perennial challenges have limited the capabilities of those expression systems. New CHO lines and improved upstream methods steadily are increasing expression titers, yet researchers continue to decry CHO’s relatively low growth rate. E. coli exhibits strong growth kinetics but cannot perform posttranslational modifications necessary for complex therapeutic proteins. Researchers need advanced technologies and analytical methods to overcome such limitations. This…

eBook: Cancer Vaccines ⁠— Innovation Fuels an Immunotherapy Renaissance

Despite early successes a decade ago, cancer vaccines designed to deliver peptides or proteins — or nucleic acids encoding those antigens — generally have fizzled out since then. As a result, cancer vaccine development and the field of immunotherapy lost some traction overall. But as freelance contributor Jim Kling describes in this eBook, new innovations in product design, testing, and manufacturing are fueling a renaissance in cancer vaccine development. From checkpoint inhibitors to neoantigens, immune regulators, and beyond, companies are…