Expression Platforms

A Review of Therapeutic Protein Expression By Mammalian Cells

During the past five years, many biopharmaceuticals have found their way into clinical trials and commercial production (1–4). So far, about 60 million patients worldwide have benefited from these new drugs. The market for biopharmaceuticals was estimated at US$33 billion in 2004 and projected to reach US$70 billion by the end of the decade. During the period 2003–2006, regulators in Europe and the United States approved 32 biopharmaceuticals for human use, including hormones and growth factors, therapeutic enzymes, vaccines, and…

Moving On in Cell Culture

Record-breaking titer outputs in mammalian cell culture systems in the past few years have pushed the industry to a new crisis of sorts: resolving the downstream bottleneck. However, the cell culture and fermentation groups at biopharmaceutical companies aren’t yet ready to sit back and rest on their laurels. Instead, they are moving forward, tackling the downstream issue with upstream modifications and continuing their drive for more cost-efficient processing. The Cell Culture and Upstream Processing track will focus on cell culture…

Cell Cultivation Process Transfer and Scale-Up

Discovery, development, and commercialization of novel biologics frequently involve collaboration between two or more companies. In the context of these business relationships, transfer of technology from one institution to another is a crucial step that needs to be executed flawlessly and rapidly. Follow-up activities usually include the development of productive, reliable, and scalable processes and are equally important because they are usually on the critical path to market. PRODUCT FOCUS: MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIESPROCESS FOCUS: TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER (PRODUCTION) AND ANALYTICAL METHODS DEVELOPMENTWHO…

Cell Cultivation Process Transfer and Scale-Up

The introduction of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) has greatly revolutionized therapies for several cancer immune disorders (1,2,3,4,5). Benefits to patients have been substantial, translating into both increased life expectancy and improved quality of life. Currently, twenty-one therapeutic MAbs are registered for marketing in the United States, with the introduction of several more expected in the coming years (6,7,8,9,10,11). PRODUCT FOCUS: MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIESPROCESS FOCUS: Technology transfer (production) and analytical methods developmentWHO SHOULD READ: PRODUCTION AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT, MANUFACTURINGKEYWORDS: IGF-1R, EXPRESSION, TECH…

Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for Rapid, Simultaneous Monitoring

The use of cellular physiology to make target molecules has been practiced for centuries, with early examples being the production of wine and beer through yeast fermentation. Single (e.g., bacteria and yeast) and multicellular (plant or animal) organisms can be harnessed to produce otherwise chemically complex, low-yield, or chemically uncharacterized materials. These include “lock-and-key” receptor complexes with perfect stereochemical specificity, large-scale protein scaffolds, or antibiotics. One example is penicillin, with a sensitive β-lactam ring structure at its core (1). Mass-production…

Process Monitoring in Suspension–Adapted CHO Cell Cultures

Suspension-adapted Chinese hamster ovary cell (CHO-S) cultures are widely used in biotechnological production of recombinant proteins. In fact, such special cell lines have become the standard for this type of biopharmaceutical production (1). The reasons for that include their fast reproduction, high protein expression rate compared with other eukaryotic cells and, above all, the glycosylation patterns generated by the cells (2, 3). PRODUCT FOCUS: Animal cell products (recombinant proteins)PROCESS FOCUS: Production and product developmentWHO SHOULD READ: Process and cell culture…