Adherent cells such as adult primary cell lines and human multipotent (MSCs) and pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) present a manufacturing challenge as lot sizes increase from 109 (billions) to 1012 (trillions) cells (1). Typically, manufacturing platforms are good for one log of expansion. So new methods will be required to achieve commercially relevant lot sizes. Traditional two-dimensional culture methods have been used to grow anchorage-dependent cell types. Although such methods are reliable and well defined, they are very labor intensive and limited in scale-up production potential by the available growth surface area (Table 1). Allogeneic “off-the-shelf” therapies based on adherent-cell platforms may require manufactured lot sizes from 100 billion to a trillion cells depending on a given indication’s market size (2).
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