Cell therapy promises revolutionary new therapeutic treatments for cancer and other serious diseases and injuries. For example, T-cell therapy response rates of >50% and durable complete response rates of 20% have been reported in patients with metastatic melanoma who had failed other therapies (1). In another example, sustained remissions of up to a year were achieved among a small group of advanced chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients upon treatment with autologous T-cells expressing an anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (2). Numerous other examples use cell therapy for cardiac repair, bone or cartilage regeneration, organ repair (pancreas or liver), neurological repair (spinal cord or brain injury), correcting genetic defects, and treating infectious diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (3).
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