In all bioprocess stages, developers and manufacturers aim to intensify as many steps as possible. For upstream processes, the result can be significant productivity gains with an evolution of bioreactor train design that takes advantage of higher titers to compress the train and intensify production outputs. Upstream intensification of production-scale bioreactors has driven bioprocess productivity evolution for several years. Interest has been growing in what can be achieved with laboratory-scale cell expansion, which has remained a fairly static process involving serial scale-up from vials to multiple flask volumes. Those steps are performed before bioreactor scale for production and before additional process development and characterization at another laboratory.
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