Downstream Processing

Next Generation Depth Filters for the Clarification of Flocculated Mammalian Cell Culture

Increasingly high cell density, high product titer cell cultures, containing mammalian cells are placing a larger burden on traditional downstream clarification and purification operations due to higher product and impurity levels. EMD Millipore has addressed these challenges by developing a proprietary single-use technology to improve primary and secondary direct depth filtration of flocculated high cell density mammalian cell cultures. The use of graded depth filters, combined with pre-treatment technologies, have achieved higher primary throughput capacities and lower flushing volumes as…

Liquid-Liquid Porometry of Viresolve® Pro Membrane

A liquid-liquid porometry (LLP) test was developed to characterize the pore size distribution of Viresolve® Pro membrane. Data generated by this test supports the understanding of the size-based virus removal mechanism of the filter. The LLP test also is used at-line during membrane casting. Process control based on LLP results improves membrane consistency.

A Case Study: 3-step Process for Efficient mAb Purification

This study showcases a portfolio of commercially available biopharmaceutical chromatography resins designed for the efficient purification of monoclonal antibodies. A 3-step purification process has been implemented which showed effective removal of the main contaminants, low ligand leakage, and high yields over the entire process. Eshmuno® A affinity chromatography resin was evaluated as the first step in the process. The Protein A elution pool was further purified using cation exchange chromatography. Two cation exchange resins with different selectivities were compared. The…

Scalable Method for Packing Chromatography Columns

Currently the bio-pharmaceutical industry is heading towards cost cutting, time saving and single use manufacturing approach. This has opened up a whole new market for disposable technologies. Pre-packed disposable chromatography columns are a best fit for preclinical and clinical stage Monoclonal Antibody (mAb) production and vaccine manufacturing processes which require quick turnaround times and aggressive validation respectively. This work describes development of pre-packed and ready to use chromatography columns to meet this need in the industry. A robust packing method…

Virus Risk Mitigation for Raw Materials

Recombinant protein–based medicinal products and modern cell-based vaccines have a very strong safety history with respect to viral and microbial contamination. However, virus contamination incidents do occur occasionally in manufacturing processes, and they can consume many resources and be expensive to rectify. The root cause of contamination incidents in recent years is most likely the use of contaminated raw materials. These include bovine serum contaminated with reovirus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, Cache valley virus or vesivirus 2117; porcine trypsin contaminated…

Development Strategies for Novel Vaccines for Infectious Diseases

In a vaccine development program, the probability of success at each transition decreases, even though the actual probability of moving from one phase to another can be 50–80% (Figure 1). Many compounds and vaccine candidates are screened out even before they get into preclinical studies. Developers can implement different approaches to reduce product failure risk before a program gets expensive, including Establishing a product development plan (PDP) Identifying and mitigating risk with gap analysis Learning from the mistakes of others…

Industry Adoption of Membrane Adsorbers

Membrane adsorbers (MAs) are the fastest-growing segment in single-use bioprocessing. But their future is not entirely certain. According to BioPlan Associates’ latest survey of biopharmaceutical manufacturing, the MA market has been growing at ~20% annually since 2006 (1). Paradoxically, however, the segment may not be a true “rising star.” Our study also shows that MAs remain among the least-often adopted devices among biomanufacturers. So the question of how and whether MA technology can revolutionize bioprocessing remains open. Market for Membrane…

Simpler and More Efficient Viral Vaccine Manufacturing

Human and veterinary vaccines are divided into five main categories: conjugate, toxoid, subunit, inactivated (killed), and live (attenuated) vaccines (1). The vast majority of currently licensed human and veterinary vaccines are inactivated or live (2, 3). They are produced mostly using adherent cells: primary cells such as chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF), human diploid cells such as MRC-5, or continuous cell lines such as Vero and MDCK (4). The pioneering legacy inherited by vaccine manufacturing development has led to strategies for…

Emerging Challenges to Protein A

Protein A affinity chromatography has been a target for replacement since its commercial debut, mainly because of its high acquisition cost. The technique became established despite the cost because it was born into an industrial culture that favored speed to market over manufacturing economy (1). Vendors have since strengthened protein A’s position with incremental but worthy improvements such as higher capacity, lower ligand leaching, and modest tolerance of NaOH. Collateral improvements in polishing technologies, such as the high throughput and…

A Platform Approach for the Purification of Domain Antibodies (Dabs)

A three-step purification process for a Dab successfully developed and verified. The step yield ranged between 86% and 99%, giving a total process yield of approximately 81%. The ECP in the start sample was more than 200 000 ppm whereas the final sample contained only 5.5 ppm. The endotoxin content in the feed was approximately 2 million endotoxin units/mg of protein and the final sample was below the limit of quantification. Protein L leakage was undetectable in all samples. This…