Downstream Processing

Implementing Cost Reduction Strategies for HuMab Manufacturing Processes

    The combination of innovative and traditional process technologies has resulted in major advancements in the antibody industry, such as accelerated process development and time-to-market. In addition, this paper examines the avenues that have opened as a result of exploring established process technologies for new applications, as in the case of perfusion cell cultures to amplify dhfr-based expression cell lines by incrementally increasing selection markers in the perfusion medium for the faster generation of stable and high-productivity clones. Furthermore,…

Rapid Purification of Lys-C from Cultures

Endoproteases specific for cleavage of peptidyl bonds on the C-terminal side of lysine residues (e.g., Lys-C) are produced from a number of bacterial species, including Achromobacter lyticus (1), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2), and Lysobacter enzymogenes (3). The Achromobacter protease 1 (API) protein has been substantially characterized (4,5,6) and shown to be a resilient enzyme that can specifically cleave after lysine residues under a wide range of buffer conditions, including high concentrations of denaturing agents such as urea and sodium dodecyl sulphate…

Purifying a Recalcitrant Therapeutic Recombinant Protein with a Mixed-Mode Chromatography Sorbent

Mixed-mode chromatography sorbents can save time and money by reducing the number of steps required to purify recombinant proteins. They also have the potential to purify proteins that single-mode sorbents cannot. As the term mixed mode suggests, these sorbents contain ligands that offer multiple modes of interaction. Although mixed-mode sorbents are used extensively in solid-phase extraction for high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) sample preparation — and to a more limited extent in analytical HPLC — these resins are generally unsuitable for…

Non-Invasive Sensors as Enablers of “Smart” Disposables

    Disposable bioprocessing has come of age. Economic and regulatory conditions are driving the widespread adoption of disposable equipment at all stages of bioprocessing. This review considers the entire bioprocess chain and assesses the status of disposables. In particular, we focus on the current availability and need for additional sensors that will enable the disposable process to be integrated — in compliance — with the latest Process Analytical Technologies. Traditional bioprocessing is highly compartmentalized into upstream and downstream operations.…

MAb Contaminant Removal with a Multimodal Anion Exchanger

Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) constitute ∼30% of the biopharmaceutical products currently under development (1). An increasing demand for MAbs during the past decade has led to intense development of high-expression cell cultures (2). Today, it is possible to see titers of 4–5 g/L, and expression levels as high as 15 g/L and greater have been reported. As a consequence, demand has increased for more efficient downstream processes. That demand, combined with its potential for reducing time-to-market, has increased interest in the…

Applying Good Engineering Practices to the Design of Single-Use Systems

Significant changes are being incorporated into biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes as a result of drivers such as increasingly strict regulatory demands, reduction of manufacturing costs, and outsourcing to contract manufacturing organizations (CMOs). Historically, many biopharmaceutical processes were designed and built based on cleanable, reusable stainless steel systems and unit operations. Today several industry drivers are shifting some unit operations toward single-use technologies, namely lowered cross-contamination, reduced capital investments, and desired further reduction in manufacturing costs and shortened drug development times (1,2,3).…

Quantifying Trends Toward Alternatives to Protein A

Problems associated with affinity purification in antibody production continue to increase as upstream cell culture expression levels improve. As a result, many vendors and users in the biopharmaceutical industry are working to identify alternative technologies that can replace tried-and-true column chromatography. In the fifth annual report and survey by BioPlan Associates, 434 global respondents pointed to bottlenecks created by downstream processes as one of their most serious manufacturing problems today (1). Amost two-thirds (63.8%) said their facility is experiencing some…

TFF Membranes for High MAb Concentration

In a typical monoclonal antibody (MAb) purification process, immediately after cell culture and supernatant clarification (its objective being to remove whole cells, cell debris, and particulates), the protein product is typically bound to an affinity chromatography resin and then recovered by elution using a buffer solution. Once recovered, the resulting protein solution is further purified through additional chromatography and virus clearance steps before being concentrated until a final solution is ready for filling and finishing operations. PRODUCT FOCUS: MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIESPROCESS…

Introducing Disposable Systems into Biomanufacturing

Single-use (disposable) systems are being considered and introduced into many biopharmaceutical processes because manufacturers have identified significant benefits they offer over traditional reusable systems. These benefits are often more evident when a new process and product are being developed. Lower capital expenditures, shorter development times for new facilities, and reduced validation costs are some of the reasons single-use technology may be selected. Here, a contract manufacturer’s case study is described in which an existing stainless steel system was completely replaced…

The Emerging Generation of Chromatography Tools for Virus Purification

Chromatography media and methods have evolved continuously since their introduction a half century ago. Traditional methods use columns packed with porous particles. They still dominate chromatography applications in the field of virus purification, but the past 20 years have witnessed the ascendance of alternative supports, namely membranes and monoliths. These newer media exploit the familiar surface chemistries — ion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and affinity — but they use unique architectures that offer compelling performance features. The Architecture of Chromatography Media…